Fiber optics is one of the most useful and high-quality cables, commonly utilized to transfer data. The data is transmitted through the light pulses which pass through the glass strands and convert the light pulses into information material. The transmission of light is not always perfect, which denotes the fiber optic loss.
If the output light pulse is less than the input light pulse, it denotes the loss in information, also termed as fiber optic loss. Common reasons for this can be:
- Absorption of the core
- Absorption of cladding
- Leakage of light from cladding
Decibels are the unit of calculating light pulse loss during the transit of information. It is equally applicable to single-mode and multimode fiber cables. However, the problem can be quickly resolved once it is identified. Therefore, fiber optic is the most trusted cable in developed countries like the United Arab Emirates.
This article will share a brief guide about fiber optic loss and its reduction tips to ensure smooth data transmission.
Top 2 Causes of Loss in Fiber Optic Signals
The problem of fiber optic loss can take place in the installation process. The poor-quality fiber optics become develop such issues more frequently and became useless in a short time. Therefore, you should be cautious while selecting high-quality cable. Besides this, few issues during installation can also lead to fiber optic loss.
The following are the two main causes of loss in the fiber optic signals.
1. Intrinsic Loss
Below mentioned are some of the most important causes that lead to an intrinsic loss in the fiber optic cables.
a) Scattering Loss
The scattering loss is the most common form of intrinsic fiber optic loss that takes place during the process of manufacturing. The problem mainly occurs due to the scattering of signals after the microscopic variations hit them in the glass’s density.
b) Absorption Loss
The second common form of intrinsic fiber optic loss is the absorption loss. This is the type of loss that occurs due to the change in the form of energy. This change takes place when the light photons interact with fiber components like glass, metal, or electron and change into the energy form of heat.
c) Dispersion Loss
The third most common form of intrinsic fiber optic loss is the dispersion loss. This is the loss that occurs due to the alteration in the signal transmission. It is further divided into two types according to the nature of the loss.
- Intermodal loss: specific to multimode fiber optic cables
- Intramodal loss: specific to single-mode fiber optic cables
2. Extrinsic Loss
Below mentioned are some of the most important causes that lead to the development of extrinsic loss in the fiber optic cables.
a) Splicing Loss
The optical fiber cable is joined using the end-to-end method to ensure the uninterrupted transmission of data, which is known as splicing. This gives rise to the perfect opportunity for extrinsic fiber optic loss, which occurs due to power loss at numerous splice locations. The loss is higher in mechanical splicing, while lower in fusion splicing. Certain other factors play an important role in it, which are the following:
- Poor cleave
- Misalignment of fiber cores
- Air gap
- Mismatched index refraction
- Mismatched core diameter
- Insertion Loss
Insertion loss, commonly known as the connector loss, is one of the most common forms of extrinsic fiber optic loss. This type of loss occurs due to the type of connector inserter in the connection. Other factors contributing to the issue are:
- Dirt or contaminants on the connector
- Improper connector installation
- Damaged connector face
- Mismatched or misaligned fiber cores
- Misaligned fiber cores
c) Bending Loss
Bending loss is one of the most common extrinsic fiber optic loss, which is mainly due to mishandling. This occurs when the bend is tighter than the radius of the cable. It can be on a small scale or large scale according to the length of the cable. Other factors that contribute to the issue include these points:
- Sharp curves of the fiber core
- Displacements of a few millimeters caused by buffer or jacket imperfections
- Poor installation practice
If you are not too sure how to handle the fiber optic cable, you should not try to test your skills, as you can damage the cable in the process. Hire the service of fiber optic UAE based companies to ensure proper installation, which is free of any intrinsic or extrinsic loss and enjoy seamless data transmission.
Top 6 Tried and Tested Tips to Reduce Loss in Fiber Optic
Knowing about the causes of fiber optic loss is not enough; you should also be aware of the reduction tips to minimize the damage to the possible extent. So, the following are some tried and tested tips to reduce loss in the fiber optics.
- Utilize high-quality cable with the devices of the same properties for the best results.
- Use high-quality connectors.
- Splice carefully according to environmental and processing requirements.
- Keep the connectors well cleaned.
- Select the best route and method during fiber optic installation.
- Involve the experts to design and complete the installation process.